Need more informations? See the lucene website. More specifically look for the "Query Syntax" documentation entry for the Lucene Core version matching the version used in your XWiki installation (to find the version used by XWiki look for lucene-core-x.y.z.jar in the XWiki's /WEB-INF/lib folder. For example for XWiki Enterprise 2.6 uses Lucene Core 2.9.3 which means the Lucene Query Syntax can be found here.

Terms

A query is broken up into terms and operators. There are two types of terms: Single Terms and Phrases.

  • A Single Term is a single word such as "test" or "hello".
  • A Phrase is a group of words surrounded by double quotes such as "hello dolly".
Multiple terms can be combined together with Boolean operators to form a more complex query (see below).

Wildcard Searches

Lucene supports single and multiple character wildcard searches within single terms (not within phrase queries).

  • To perform a single character wildcard search use the "?" symbol.
  • To perform a multiple character wildcard search use the "*" symbol.

The single character wildcard search looks for terms that match that with the single character replaced. For example, to search for "text" or "test" you can use the search:

te?t

Multiple character wildcard searches looks for 0 or more characters. For example, to search for test, tests or tester, you can use the search:

test*

You can also use the wildcard searches in the middle of a term.

te*t
Note: You cannot use a * or ? symbol as the first character of a search.

Boolean Operators

Boolean operators allow terms to be combined through logic operators. Lucene supports AND, "+", OR, NOT and "-" as Boolean operators(Note: Boolean operators must be ALL CAPS).

The OR operator is the default conjunction operator. This means that if there is no Boolean operator between two terms, the OR operator is used. The OR operator links two terms and finds a matching document if either of the terms exist in a document. This is equivalent to a union using sets. The symbol || can be used in place of the word OR.

To search for documents that contain either "jakarta apache" or just "jakarta" use the query:

"jakarta apache" jakarta

or

"jakarta apache" OR jakarta

AND

The AND operator matches documents where both terms exist anywhere in the text of a single document. This is equivalent to an intersection using sets. The symbol && can be used in place of the word AND.

To search for documents that contain "jakarta apache" and "Apache Lucene" use the query:

"jakarta apache" AND "Apache Lucene"

+

The "+" or required operator requires that the term after the "+" symbol exist somewhere in a the field of a single document.

To search for documents that must contain "jakarta" and may contain "lucene" use the query:

+jakarta lucene

NOT

The NOT operator excludes documents that contain the term after NOT. This is equivalent to a difference using sets. The symbol ! can be used in place of the word NOT.

To search for documents that contain "jakarta apache" but not "Apache Lucene" use the query:

"jakarta apache" NOT "Apache Lucene"

Note: The NOT operator cannot be used with just one term. For example, the following search will return no results:

NOT "jakarta apache"

-

The "-" or prohibit operator excludes documents that contain the term after the "-" symbol.

To search for documents that contain "jakarta apache" but not "Apache Lucene" use the query:

"jakarta apache" -"Apache Lucene"

Grouping

Lucene supports using parentheses to group clauses to form sub queries. This can be very useful if you want to control the boolean logic for a query.

To search for either "jakarta" or "apache" and "website" use the query:

(jakarta OR apache) AND website

This eliminates any confusion and makes sure you that website must exist and either term jakarta or apache may exist.

Field Grouping

Lucene supports using parentheses to group multiple clauses to a single field.

To search for a title that contains both the word "return" and the phrase "pink panther" use the query:

title:(+return +"pink panther")

Escaping Special Characters

Lucene supports escaping special characters that are part of the query syntax. The current list special characters are

+ - && || ! ( ) { } [ ] ^ " ~ * ? : \

To escape these character use "\" (backslash) before the character. For example to search for (1+1):2 use the query:

\(1\+1\)\:2

Searchable fields

XWiki documents contain wiki content and meta-information. Lucene indexes such information in fields. 

wiki

In a wiki farm you can specify a wiki to search in with the "wiki:" prefix.

Look for the word "test" in the wiki "mywiki":

test AND wiki:mywiki

title

Look for documents with title "Welcome to your wiki":

title:"Welcome to your wiki"

name

Look for documents named "WebHome":

name:WebHome

space

Name of the space the document belongs to

Look for the word "test" in the space "Blog":

test AND space:Blog 

exactspace

exactspace is untokenized for exact matches.

If we have two spaces, "Main" and "The Main Space", trying to get results from the "Main" space will also include results from the "The Main Space" space. The "exactspace" field will allow to have  exact matches on the space name.

Look for the word "test" in the space "Blog":

test AND exactspace:Blog 

lang

Look for "Voila" in french documents :

Voila AND lang:fr

type

Type of a document: "attachment", "wikipage" or "objects", used to control presentation of searchresults.

Look for "test" in attachments:

test AND type:attachment

Look for "test" in pages but exclude attachments containing the word test:

test AND -type:attachment

filename

Look for attachments with a filename starting with "test":

filename:test*

mimetype

Look for attachments with a certain MIME type. Examples:

  • Search for PDFs only: mimetype:application/pdf
  • Search for all attachments except images: type:attachment -mimetype:image/*

object

The "object:" prefix allow to search for pages containing objects from a specific class. 

Look for comments containing the word "test":

test AND object:XWiki.XWikiComments

author

Look for documents last modified by XWiki.Admin:

author:XWiki.Admin

date

Date format: yyyyMMddHHmm

Look for documents last modified on 2009/07/08:

date:20090708*

creator

Look for documents created by XWiki.Admin:

creator:XWiki.Admin

creationdate

Date format: yyyyMMddHHmm

Look for documents created on 2009/07/08:

creationdate:20090708*

Searching for fields in XWiki objects

Beside Lucene's XWiki specific index fields, querying for documents based on the property values of contained XWiki objects is also possible.

Look for the profile page of a user who's first name is 'Administrator'.

XWiki.XWikiUsers.first_name:'Administrator'

Look for all users or groups, except the group template:

+(object:XWiki.XWikiUsers object:XWiki.XWikiGroups) -name:XWikiGroupTemplate

Looking for documents by a value which is stored in a DatabaseTree property in an object. As a mention, the searched value can be wrapped inside round paranthesis or single / double quotes

+Space.Class.databaseTreeProperty:(searchedValue)

If you would like to add a logical disjunction to the above use case, you can do it like this:

+Space.Class.databaseTreeProperty:(searchedValue OR anotherSearchedValue)

This will return all documents which contain in the object's property value either searchedValue or anotherSearchedValue

Tags:
Created by Vincent Massol on 2010/12/08 19:39
    

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