Notifications Application

Last modified by Simon Urli on 2024/05/13 15:44

bellDisplay notifications about events happening in the wiki.
Developed by

XWiki Development Team

0 Votes
LicenseGNU Lesser General Public License 2.1
Bundled With

XWiki Standard

Installable with the Extension Manager


This application contributes content in the Alert menu (contributed by the Alerts Application) in the top bar, represented by a bell:


You can find under this menu the notifications about some events happening on the wiki (a page has been modified, a new blog post has been posted, etc...).

The number of notifications is displayed on the top menu, just above the bell:


If you have more than 20 unread notifications, you will not see the real count but this instead:


When you open the menu, the content of the notifications is loaded:


Then you can see the list of notifications:


If you click on the little button with the "check" icon, you mark the notification as "read". In the future, you will be able to select either you want to see only unread notifications or all of them.

When the notification is read, the button disappear and the background color changes:


The "Clear All" link will remove all notifications that were sent till now.

When no notification is available, you will see the following:


By default, you won't receive notifications for actions done by yourself. This can be changed by switching off the Own event filter.

Group of notifications with details

Similar notifications are grouped together in order to avoid a batch of identical content. Only one notification is displayed, and it is possible to see the details of all activities in the "Details" section (if any).

XWiki 15.5+ We started to expose different ways of grouping notifications. All the details can be found on the dedicated page about Notification Grouping Strategies.

Get a notification RSS feed

You can get a RSS feed of the notifications occurring in your wiki. This feed can be accessed either through a link in your notification tray (or at the bottom of the notifications macro).

Notifications Macro

The Notifications Macro is provided by its own application.


On the notifications menu, you also have a link to go to the "settings" of the notifications.

By default, users only get notifications when they are mentioned or when actions are performed on pages they created or updated. For receiving other notifications, you need to select which "types" of notifications you want to receive. When a page is created? When a blog post is published?

You can enable or disable all notification types that belong to a particular application by clicking on the bells associated to this application. If some types are enabled and other are disabled inside an application, the switch looks like the next screenshot, meaning that the application's notifications are partially enabled:


Note that you only receive notifications that occur after you turn on the notifications types.


There is a "Filter" box on the bottom of the settings we have yet described.

XWiki <13.2 FiltersLivetable.png

This table contains two kind of filters:
  - some system filters that you can only enable or disable, which are described in the table. "System user" refers to the superadmin account.
  - custom location filters that allow you to restrict on which locations you want to receive notifications, for each event type

To add a new location filter, click on the "add a filter" button:


You will see a picker that will let you chose either a page or a wiki and a selector to choose if the filter should be inclusive or exclusive. When you select a page, the filter will also be applied on its nested pages, unless it is a terminal page.

You can also define exclusive filters. You can then exclude some pages from your notifications. Note that exclusive filters take precedence over inclusive filters.

XWiki 13.2+ 

Filters have been split into two different tables: 

  • System filters that can only be enabled or disabled, 
  • Custom filters that can be customized by users, which can be enabled or disabled and can be deleted too. Note that those filters are dedicated to filter events on specific locations.

XWiki 14.1+ Note that the "System Event" filter doesn't filter out events that target the user explicitly.

Hidden (technical) pages

Filters that concern hidden pages are not shown in the table, unless you have enabled the option to see hidden pages. That is why you can end up in a situation where filters exist but are not listed there.

Filter your own events

By default, one don't receive notification about one's own activity (XWiki 14.1+ unless the event that triggered the notification targets explicitly that user). You have the ability to disable this filter in the "Advanced filtering options" section of your own notification settings. It's a per user setting, not a global one.

Filter events that you have marked as read

You can hide the notifications that you have marked as "read", so they won't appear anymore in the notifications menu nor in the emails.

Filter minor events

Minor events are not displayed on the notifications. But you can disable this filter.

Watched Entities

You can also decide to watch some entities. Either a location (a page, a page with its children or a wiki) or a user. 

Using it

To watch a location, all you need is to go to that place, and then click on the "alert" menu (represented by a bell). 


Here you can decide to watch either this page, this page and its children, or the entire wiki.

On the notifications settings (in your user profile), you will see the watched entities in the filters box:


The notifications settings from the user profile save which "types" of notifications you want to receive, while the options from the "alert" menu represent the pages/spaces/wiki you want to get notifications for.

You won't be able to click on the buttons if you don't have enabled some event type first:


Auto Watch

By default, a page where you have made a major modification is automatically added to the list of pages you watch. It means you will be notified about changes on your work. You can change this behavior in the settings:


Follow a user

If you go to the profile of an user, using the User Index for example, you can see decide to watching a user. It means you will receive all notifications about events triggered by this user.

In your user profile, if you go to the "network" tab, you can see the list of users you are watching and the events that have performed:

Default Watch Settings

XWiki <15.5 By default for new users the whole wiki is watched. However, by default in this version, there's no application type enabled for notifications, except specific ones like Mention. This means that new users won't receive notifications, until they started to watch something and enabled some applciation types. There is a mechanism to automatically enable some application types whenever the users perform editions.

XWiki 15.5+ Starting with this version, by default nothing is watched for new users. However, all application types are now enabled. So users will keep not receiving anything, until they started to watch something. 

Watch and custom filters

Watching a location automatically create a custom notification filter, associated to that location, that targets all event types and all notification formats (alert and email).

XWiki 15.5+

Users are able to create their own custom notification filters, targeting only some specific events. So the watch buttons might be in an undecided state if there's an existing filter targeting the same location, but only some specific events, or some specific format. The idea is to inform the user that there's already a filter for this location and that using the watch buttons might impact the filter. 

If a filter is not targeting all event types and all formats, and is actually in contradiction with the filter that would be created by the watch button, then this filter will be automatically disabled when using the watch button. For example, if a user had a filter to ignore all mentions on a space, then watching that exact same space will automatically disable that filter. The user can always review their filters and enable them back.

XWiki 16.3.0+

The custom filters are all displayed in a live data which can now be filtered and sorted out: 


You can also select some types of notifications that you will receive by email. You can have different choices enabled by email and in the menu. Then, on the very bottom of the page, you can select the interval between 2 emails. For example, if you choose "Daily" (default), you will receive one email every day with the recap of the events that have happened during the day. Of course, if there were no activity in this period of time, no email is sent. 

Live notifications emails can be sent to a user. The wiki administrator can also define a "grace time" for live email notifications ; when an event that triggers a notification is sent, the platform will wait for the duration of this grace time before sending a notification email. If during this interval, a new event of the same kind is sent, the two events will be grouped in the same email. You can get more informations on how to configure this feature here.

Of course, it works only if the user has properly filled her e-mail address.

You can edit the frequency of your email notifications by using the selector just at the bottom of the notification preferences pane in your profile page :


The notifications are sorted by pages and dates, and a table of content summarizes all notifications contained in the email:


A breadcrumb is displayed on top of each notification that concern a page:


Details of the changes

The changes are displayed in the email content:


Select the level of details about the changes

In the user profile of the user, you can select the level of details that you receive on the email, about the changes that have happened to the wiki:


The current choices are:

  • Standard
  • Nothing

Macros for settings

The application proposes different wiki macros to handle the user's settings that could be called in many pages. These macros are:

Macro UsageScreenshot
XWiki <13.2 {{notificationsFiltersPreferences/}}notificationsFiltersPreferencesMacro.png
XWiki 13.2+ {{notificationsSystemFiltersPreferences/}}notificationsSystemFiltersPreferences.png
XWiki 13.2+ {{notificationsCustomFiltersPreferences/}}notificationsCustomFiltersPreferences.png

Enable and disable the extension

The extension status can be toggled by editing the configuration variable "notifications.enabled" in and restarting the server. 

# Notifications

#-# [Since 9.4RC1]
#-# Indicates if the notification module should be enabled on the platform.
#-# The default is :
# notifications.enabled = true

Enable and disable the email feature

The administrator can disable the "email" notifications by editing the configuration variable "notifications.emails.enabled" in and restarting the server. 

#-# [Since 9.5C1]
#-# Indicates if the notifications module can send emails.
#-# The default is :
# notifications.emails.enabled = true

In case you have scalability issues with the feature, please contact us to describe your problem. In any case, disabling the notification emails could help.

Customize live email notifications grace time

The wiki users can receive live email notifications when an event is triggered in the wiki. In order to reduce the load on the server and on your MTA, you can define a live notification grace time in with the variable The server should be restarted for the changes to take effect.

#-# [Since 9.6RC1]
#-# Indicate the grace time used when sending live email notifications.
#-# When an event is triggered in the wiki (for example, a document update), the platform will wait X minutes
#-# before sending live notifications emails. During this time, if events of the same kind are recieved, they will
#-# be grouped in the same email.
#-# The grace time define the period (in minutes) for which the platform should wait before sending a notification
#-# mail after an event.
#-# The default is :
# = 10

Threads, cache and filtering systems

The notifications can be quickly resource consuming as the number of filters grows rapidly when the autowatch settings is enabled, and when lots of users are interacting in a wiki. Several settings have been added to handle the scalability of the notifications. It's generally advised to keep the default settings to avoid any performance issues.

Pre- or post-filtering

Since XWiki 15.5-rc-1, post-filtering is not supported anymore.

#-# [Since 12.6]
#-# When this option is enabled the relation between users and events is evaluated and stored when the events are
#-# generated instead of each time they are displayed.
#-# The default is :
# notifications.eventPrefilteringEnabled = true

This option has a global impact on all notifications mechanism, we are talking about pre- or post- filtering depending if it's enabled (set to true) or not (set to false). 

The default behaviour is the pre-filtering: it's greatly advised to keep it like that. Pre-filtering means that each time an event occurs in the wiki, the event is pre-filtered for all users depending on their notifications settings, and the result of this pre-filtering is stored. So when a user is requesting for notifications (either to display or to count them), the operation only consists in requesting the pre-filtered notifications. The advantage of this solution is that the display of notifications better scales, since the expensive operations of filtering is already done. Now notifications might take time to reach users since each event is pre-filtered in a single thread in backend: depending on the activity on the wiki, the queue might be long. It also means that the number of users greatly impact the time it takes to fully filter one event. Also note that pre-filtering imply that each change of user notification settings only apply on the future events, not on the past one since they are already filtered. Note that even in pre-filtering mode a few filters will still be used in post filtering mode because they only make sense at that time (like the filter used to enable or disable the listing of event related to hidden pages which is something that needs to remain dynamic).

The older behaviour is the full post-filtering: in that case, all events are filtered on each call to display the notifications. On large wikis and for users with a lot of filters it might take time (we are talking about few minutes on to be computed. Note that on post-filtering, each change made on user notification settings is taking into account for both past and future notifications since the events are filtered at each call. 


#-# The search for notifications in the REST API is done trough a thread pool to limit the impact on the rest of the
#-# XWiki instance.
#-# This properties controls the size of this pool. Any number lower than 1 disable the thread pool system.
#-# The default is :

#-# [Since 12.5RC1]
#-# The async notifications renderer is using a dedicated thread pool to limit the impact on the rest of the XWiki
#-# instance.
#-# This properties controls the size of this pool.
#-# The default is :
# notifications.async.poolSize = 2

All the requests which are searching for notifications for the current user go trough a thread pool with low priority in order to limit the impact of this feature on the rest of the XWiki instance. By default only 2 threads are allocated but it's possible to modify this (or disable the system completely) in
Those thread pools are important mainly in case of post-filtering: in case of pre-filtering the notifications are faster to retrieve so it's generally less a problem to have a large pool of threads to handle them.

Note that is used for the search for notifications in REST API, which is mainly used for the notification counter in standard version of XWiki.
notifications.async.poolSize is used to retrieve and render the notifications in the standard notification area, under the bell.


#-# [Since 10.11.8]
#-# [Since 11.3]
#-# Enable or disable caching of notification search result in the REST or async API.
#-# The default is :
# = true

This cache allows to keep in memory already computed requests for notifications, both for counting the notifications and displaying them. By default, it keeps information 24 hours and is invalidated for a user when they changes their own settings.


Administrators can go to Administration > Notifications to configure some settings about the notifications.


Some properties can be overridden by users. The inheritance is "Main Wiki preferences < Current Wiki preferences < User preferences".

XWiki 13.2+ Administrators can also directly change users' notification settings by going to their profile and click on "Notifications" tab in the menu. The UI is the same as what the user is seeing to customize their own notification settings.

Enabling notifications for all users by default

In the administration, you can select which application and/or event types should be enabled by default for all users. 

Choosing the default frequency of notification emails

XWiki 14.10+ Administrators can select the default frequency used for sending emails to users about the changes that have happened on the wiki. This frequency is set to Daily by default.

Choosing the default level of details about the changes in the email

Administrators can select the level of details that users receive on the email, about the changes that have happened to the wiki.

Choosing the default auto-watched mode

Administrators can select what is the default auto watching page behavior.

You can also edit the file:

#-# [Since 9.11.8]
#-# [Since 10.6RC1]
#-# The automatic watch mode used by default. The value can be changed by an administrator in the wiki's administration
#-# or by any user in their own settings.
#-# Possible values:
#-# - none:  no page is added to the list of watched pages automatically.
#-# - all:   everytime a user makes a change on a page, it is automatically added to her list of watched pages.
#-# - major: everytime a user makes a major change on a page, it is automatically added to her list of watched pages.
#-# - new:   only pages created by a user are added to her list of watched pages.
#-# The default is :
# notifications.watchedEntities.autoWatch = major

Customizing the notification email template

The template used for email notifications is customizable. It is stored in an XWiki.Mail object inside the page XWiki.Notifications.MailTemplate.

It is possible to attach images to that templates, and they will be embedded in the notifications email.

To display them in the email, you need to use the syntax <img src="cid:myImage.png" /> in the HTML xproperty (for the Text xproperty, you'll need to decide what you want to display but it can't be an image since that's not textual emoticon_wink).

Create global notification filters

XWiki 13.3+

Administrators are now able to create custom notification filters globally: it means those filters will be copied to any new users registered on the wiki. Existing users won't have any changes when the filters are modified. 


Send notifications

See Tutorial: How to send notifications.

Override default notification templates in wiki pages

A wiki administrator can change the way notifications are displayed in the notification tray using the NotificationDisplayerClass XObject. You can get more informations about this feature in the Notifications API documentation.

Prerequisites & Installation Instructions

We recommend using the Extension Manager to install this extension (Make sure that the text "Installable with the Extension Manager" is displayed at the top right location on this page to know if this extension can be installed with the Extension Manager). Note that installing Extensions when being offline is currently not supported and you'd need to use some complex manual method.

You can also use the following manual method, which is useful if this extension cannot be installed with the Extension Manager or if you're using an old version of XWiki that doesn't have the Extension Manager:

  1. Log in the wiki with a user having Administration rights
  2. Go to the Administration page and select the Import category
  3. Follow the on-screen instructions to upload the downloaded XAR
  4. Click on the uploaded XAR and follow the instructions
  5. You'll also need to install all dependent Extensions that are not already installed in your wiki


Dependencies for this extension (org.xwiki.platform:xwiki-platform-notifications-ui 16.3.1):

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